Soil preparation before sowing
(1) Fine soil preparation: for formula fertilization, fertile soil, good watering conditions and plots without ginger blast shall be selected. On the basis of winter tillage, fine soil preparation shall be carried out as soon as possible in spring, so as to make the soil reach the rough position without light and darkness, loose the soil and compact the soil. Organic fertilizer shall be applied together with high-quality chicken manure, disease-free ring fertilizer, cake fertilizer and plant ash. The base fertilizer should be 3-4 cubic meters of high-quality rotten chicken manure or 5000-10000 kg of high-quality ring fertilizer. In the plot with high fertilizer and high water, cut the ditch and plant according to the row spacing of 60 ~ 65cm. Seed fertilizer: 100kg soybean cake, 50kg ternary compound fertilizer, 50kg potassium sulfate, 2kg zinc fertilizer and 1kg boron fertilizer.
(2) Select ginger seeds and cultivate strong seedlings
1. Carefully sow 30 days before the appropriate sowing date. Take the ginger out of the kiln and wash it with clean water to remove the soil on the ginger slices. Healthy ginger slices with large and plump, fresh skin, fresh meat, no shrinkage, no decay, no freezing, hard texture and no diseases and pests are selected as seeds. The weight of ginger is required to be about 75g, and about 500kg ginger is used every 667 square meters.
2. In the first ten days of March, choose a sunny day. At eight or nine o’clock at noon, put the selected ginger seeds on the sunny ground to dry. At night, put it at home and repeat 2-3 times to make the ginger skin white and bright. Ginger drying is over. In the process of drying, we should also pay attention to the ginger with no obvious disease, the loss of water after drying, and strictly eliminate the phenomenon of shriveled, wrinkled and dark skin, so as to ensure the quality of ginger.
3. Kang Jiang germination: soak the selected and sun dried ginger seeds with 200 times of fertilizer, Jiang Wensan, Sheng Jiang Bao, Luba and other pesticides for 10 minutes, which has the effect of sterilization and sterilization. After drying, go to the Kang to germinate. The germination temperature should be controlled at 22 ~ 25 ℃. After 20 days, when the ginger bud grows to 0.5-1 cm, it should be sown in batches according to the ginger bud size.
(1) According to the local temperature, ground temperature and late frost time, plastic film cultivation can be carried out 20-30 days earlier than conventional sowing, and sowing can begin in early April. Before covering, 100-150 grams of herbicide shall be sprayed every 667 square meters to avoid weeds under the cover. The thickness of plastic film is 0.005-0.006mm and the width is 240-340mm. The yield of plastic film mulching was 42% higher than that of no plastic film mulching.
(2) Appropriate sparse planting, increase ginger, reduce planting density, improve yield per plant, and promote large and neat ginger. The suitable planting density of high-yield community is about 5500 plants / 667 square meters, the row spacing is 60-65cm, and the plant spacing is not less than 20cm. The row spacing of medium fertilizer water plot is 60cm, the plant spacing is 18cm, 5500-6000 plants per 667m2, and about 500kg seeds per 667m2.
(3) Timely shading can promote the growth of ginger seedlings. When the emergence rate of ginger seedlings reaches 50%, timely shading can promote the healthy growth of ginger seedlings.
1. The shading net is used for shading, which is uniform, does not damage the integrity of the film, and is convenient for on-site management. Ginger seedlings thrive. The specific methods are as follows: ① high shed shading net. The 2m high arch scaffold is bound with concrete columns and bamboo poles, and the shading net with shading rate of 30% is selected. ② Vertical shading net. The shade net is drawn vertically between the ginger rows and fixed with bamboo and wood. It looks like the traditional way of ginger grass. The width is 60-65cm. A shading net with a shading rate of 40% can be selected. ③ Agricultural film perforated shading net. Choose black agricultural film with holes, pull it between ginger rows and fix it with bamboo and wood.
2. In order to reduce the shade of firewood, most ginger farmers are used to planting ginger grass for shade and use ginger grass more, such as quercetin, cereal grass, corn straw, etc. because firewood has many residues of diseases and pests, especially the corn borer overwintering in corn straw. Planting ginger grass in ginger land will increase the number of ginger borers and aggravate the occurrence of ginger borers, which is not conducive to the prevention and control of diseases and pests in ginger land, Planting ginger grass is laborious and costly.
Middle and late growth
(1) Light application of top dressing fertilizer, heavy application of compound branch fertilizer, supplementary application of autumn fertilizer, watering in the first and middle of June, and 25kg urea per 667 square meters to promote the growth of ginger seedlings. In early and middle July, the plastic film shall be removed and 50kg ternary compound fertilizer shall be applied every 667 square meters. Before August 20, 30kg of potassium sulfate shall be applied every 667 square meters, and watered in time after topdressing. In mid September, according to the growth trend of ginger seedlings, potassium fertilizer or nitrogen fertilizer shall be applied appropriately, and leaf fertilizer shall be applied to the aboveground part every 7-10 days for 3-4 consecutive times, so as to treat diseases and prevent premature aging, and prolong the functional period of leaves in the later growth stage.
(2) In order to ensure the smooth emergence of ginger, we usually do not water the ginger seedlings before sowing, but wait until 70% of the ginger seedlings are unearthed, and then water them according to the weather, soil texture, soil humidity and so on. First of all, if the water is not too late, the ginger seedlings will suffer from drought and the buds are easy to dry up. As the plastic film has a good moisturizing effect, it is not suitable to release too much water in the seedling stage. A small amount of water should be poured under the plastic film. In summer, watering is best in the morning and evening, not at noon. At the same time, pay attention to timely drainage after rain. Before and after early autumn, the water demand of ginger increased during its vigorous growth period. During this period, water every 4-5 days to keep the soil moist. In order to ensure less clay after ginger harvest and easy storage, the last water can be poured out 3-4 days before harvest. After applying branch fertilizer, according to the growth of ginger, the soil shall be cultivated for 2-3 times in time to ensure that the growth is not exposed and promote the rapid growth of ginger.
(3) The temperature at the end of autumn is 8-18 ℃. The key period for the formation of yield is high and cool in autumn, sufficient light and large temperature difference between day and night. According to the test, after frost, harvest one day every night, with an average output of 667 square meters and an increase of 30-60 kg. The best harvest time of Tianjian ginger should be 10-15 days after the first frost. At this time, the ginger harvest will not be frostbitten, but also make full use of the golden period of yield increase in the later stage. Therefore, we must grasp the best harvest time and never harvest too early.
2. Arched greenhouse shall be set in the ginger field before the first frost to delay the protection of plastic film and prolong the growth period of ginger by 20-30 days. Every 667 square meters can increase the output of ginger by more than 1000 kg, the output of 667 square meters can reach more than 5500 kg, and the output of 667 square meters can reach more than 6000 kg. The results show that the delay effect of arch shed in the later stage is better than that of non membrane arch shed? Decoration? Compared with film mulching early and arch shed late, the yield increased by more than 50%.
(4) Integrated pest control. 1. Ginger blast is a devastating disease and the main factor restricting the development of ginger. Give priority to comprehensive management; 2. Soil, fertilizer, water, seed net; 3. Dig drainage ditches for drainage and waterlogging prevention; 4. Do a good job in chemical prevention and control. The roots were soaked with 1500 ~ 2000 times of medicinal solution such as feisu, shengjiangbao, cooling powder and Luba, and the diseased plants were removed in time. The above solution is used for soil treatment and lime is used for marking. After the ginger is harvested, the soil here can be buried deeply.
During the growth period, the main pests include ginger borer, beet armyworm, ginger thrips, etc. it is necessary to timely observe the pest situation and do a good job of chemical control before the outbreak. Insecticides such as moth, quick kill and whitefly can be used for control, once every 7 ~ 10 days.
Ginger is generally stored in the cellar, generally 5-7 meters deep, and 2-3 ginger storage holes are dug. The temperature of the cellar is kept at 11-13 ℃, and the relative humidity of the air is kept above 90%. Before ginger enters the cellar, the ginger hole and cellar bottom shall be thoroughly cleaned. If it is too dry, it can be watered properly to keep it wet. In order to control ginger maggots and keep ginger fresh, fungicides such as chlorothalonil and Carbendazim and insecticides such as dichlorvos can be applied in advance. After the completion of the ginger cellar, a 1m square agricultural film shall be paved at the bottom of the well, 3-5kg wheat straw shall be stacked, and 0.25kg 80% dichlorvos stock solution shall be poured to fumigate and kill the adults of ginger maggots to prevent the occurrence of ginger maggots. The method is simple, convenient, low cost and good control effect. Stored ginger has no insect head, bright color and good economic benefit. When ginger enters the cellar for 20-25 days, the wellhead shall be sealed with snow. Pay attention to ventilation before entering the cellar to prevent casualties.
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