1、 Environmental conditions
1. Temperature requirements
Temperature is the limiting factor for the natural distribution of cactus, and its growth requirement is 15-40 ℃, with 20-30 ℃ as the best range. In northern China, plastic film and other protected cultivation methods can be used to ensure its healthy growth.
2. Requirements for moisture, light, ventilation and soil
Cactus is drought resistant and afraid of ponding. Therefore, on the one hand, we should pay attention to loose soil and good air permeability, and on the other hand, we should water it thoroughly (infiltrate into the soil) instead of causing ponding. Cactus has strong adaptability to soil, such as chernozem, red soil and loess.
2、 Land selection and preparation
1. Site selection
It is suitable for sandy soil with neutral or slightly acidic pH value, good drainage condition and not too tight soil aggregate structure.
2. Land preparation
When preparing the soil, deep ploughing should be carried out for 1-2 times. The depth of cultivated land should be about 40 cm. Harrow the soil for 2-3 times until the soil is flat and fine. Apply 3000-4000 catties of rotten organic base fertilizer or other organic fertilizer per mu, and apply them into the base fertilizer by hole application or furrow application.
It’s better to mix in the right amount of plant ash to supplement the needs of potassium and mineral elements in the early stage of rooting after planting, and improve the soil.
3. Make a border
The height of the border is 20-25cm. The width of the border depends on the purpose of planting (planting, vegetable, fruit, etc.), 40cm, 60cm, 80cm, 100cm, but it should not be too wide, so as not to affect the field management.
3、 Maintenance management
There are two methods of fertilization for edible cactus, namely base fertilizer and topdressing. The base fertilizer is applied to the soil during soil preparation.
Top dressing was carried out in different times: one was seedling fertilizer, which was applied when the seed sprout grew to about 6cm; The other was post harvest fertilizer, which was applied to promote the germination of cactus after harvest. Do not apply any fertilizer during dormancy.
It is not suitable to water the cactus just after it is planted. It should be watered after it takes root and germinates. It should be watered enough every time. It is not suitable to water more at ordinary times, and it is necessary to avoid ponding in the planting field. Generally 15 cm below the surface of the earth, when the soil can not form a mass by hand, it is necessary to add water in time.
Weeding should be carried out frequently to prevent weeds from competing with plants for water and fertilizer. It can also play the role of loosening soil and ventilating.
(1) Vegetable slice picking
The best picking time is when there is no obvious damage spot or disease spot within one month after sprouting, and the second or third segment spindles fall off. The older the stem, the higher the acidity; Early picking will affect the yield and quality.
(2) Seed picking
As a kind of seed piece, the growth period should be more than 3-4 months, the thorn base of stem piece should fall off completely, the growth is full and robust, and there is no damage spot or disease spot. After harvesting, dry it in the shade for 3-5 days. When the wound is slightly dry or soaked in Bordeaux solution, the incision can be planted or sold.
5. Cultivate soil
In the process of cactus growth and development, with the increase of the weight of the above ground part, soil should be cultivated in time to avoid plant lodging.
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