Around us, there are many people who want to be lazy and play with some plants. Those who buy because of personal preferences of green plants, often not long, either leaves yellow, or rotten. If you want to “spend no time, no energy, and you can live well, you should be the first choice of succulent plants known as” the most cute plants in history “. So, how to raise succulent plants? Now let’s take a look.

According to statistics, there are more than 10000 kinds of succulent plants in the world, which used to live in arid or salty places. However, with the development of high technology, this kind of succulent food which can not be planted because of climate and geographical environment can be seen everywhere. No matter what variety it is, either stem, or leaf, or root, it always has a part that is fat, thick and fleshy. Common succulent plants in the market also have a nice name, such as Yulu, Mingyue, white peony, shengshihua, hongzhiyu, triangle Lilian and so on.

[soil matrix] For succulent plants, most of the culture soils sold on the market have certain limitations, so the experienced enthusiasts prepare them by themselves. What kind of cultivation soil is high quality? In short, it should be loose and breathable, good drainage, with a certain aggregate structure, which can provide nutrients for plant growth period. When preparing, we should pay attention to the reasonable combination of organic and inorganic plant materials to avoid too fine and small dust. Here are some common substrates for succulent plants:
1. Organic plant material
① Rotten leaf soil: the Clivia soil sold on the market can be selected, and the leaves of Larix gmelinii or Zelkova schneideriana can also be collected by themselves for composting and fermentation, which can be used for disinfection.
② Peat: for buried in the ground for thousands of years of Lake plants, is now Jilin, Heilongjiang produced better. High quality peat is brown in color, high in organic matter, good in fiber, loose in texture, non sticky in hand, strong in adsorption, and slightly acidic in pH value.
③ Sawdust: water permeability, water retention, but because of its high carbon content, low nitrogen content, generally not used alone, can be mixed with some nitrogen-containing compounds, such as bean cake and other heap fermentation.
④ Rice husk ash: rich in potassium fertilizer, pH slightly alkaline. To choose dark black, not white, and to uniform structure, not too thin.
⑤ Snake sawdust: treated stem of a fern (Alsophila spinulosa). It is hard, brown and not easy to rot. With good drainage and certain fertility, it is a popular cultivation medium in recent years.
⑥ Mountain mud: Huangshan mud: low content of organic matter, general drainage; Red mountain mud: high content of organic matter, heavy soil after watering, easy to harden after drying; Black mud: high content of organic matter, good drainage and not easy to harden after watering. Generally, black mud is used.
⑦ Xiantu: commonly used medium for orchid cultivation. But it turns out that it’s also quite good for more meat. Its characteristics are: complete nutrients, good drainage, no pollution, no weed seeds. After one year of potting, the aggregate structure is still very good.
2. Inorganic plant material
① Vermiculite: a kind of golden light material with honeycomb like structure, with strong water and heat preservation, good air permeability and no bacteria. As a cutting medium, the survival rate is high, but it has no fertility, so it should be mixed with other substrates. It is easy to destroy its structure after long-term cultivation. Used vermiculite should be screened before use.
② Perlite: a kind of aluminosilicate containing volcanic rock, which is heated and expanded at high temperature to form a lightweight material. Good permeability and ventilation. But the effective water content is low, so it is often used as supplementary material.
③ Coconut bran: palm fiber, loose texture, especially strong water retention. It is often used for cutting. Coconut chaff, also known as “expansive soil”, is a small piece of compressed coconut chaff commonly seen on the market. Soak in water before using.
④ Pond footstone: it is fired at high temperature and is often placed at the bottom of the basin or mixed with other substrates. If mixed with other plant materials, the particle size should not be too large, about 0.2cm.
⑤ Zhijinshi: it is the substrate of planting orchid, which has more advantages than the base stone of pond. It is rich in various minerals. It can be used to cultivate many kinds of meat, and the effect is remarkable. It can replace the former, but the price is a little expensive.
⑥ It should be saltless and not too fine. Before use, it should be washed, screened and mixed with other substrates. Good water permeability, high oxygen content, large temperature difference between morning and night, suitable for more meat requirements. Other inorganic plant materials include volcanic rock, coal cake, etc. In addition, some auxiliary materials, such as calcium containing material, shell powder and calcium treasure, are often used in the preparation of culture soil. There are also some base fertilizers, such as chicken manure, cow manure, etc. When preparing, we should pay attention to the reasonable combination of organic and inorganic plant materials to avoid too fine and small dust.[soil preparation] no matter what kind of planting material and how to prepare it, it should meet the basic requirements of plants, and consider all aspects of the situation and grasp flexibly.
① According to the cultivation site to prepare: such as ground and potted soil is different. More drainage links should be taken into account in the field planting, and more drainage materials, such as gravel, should be added. The potted plants should supplement organic matter properly on the principle of loose and breathable. If it is planted on Nanyang platform, it is necessary to consider the characteristics of relatively dry and sufficient light, and appropriately add some substrates with strong water holding capacity, such as vermiculite and coconut bran.
② According to different kinds of soil preparation: different kinds of soil preparation may be “very different”. For example, epiphytic species need a certain amount of humus, while some terrestrial species with poor soil and undeveloped root system in the origin have lower requirements on humus than the former. Not only different families need different soil, but also different families and genera need different soil. Take Chinese aloe and woliu of Liliaceae for example. The former belongs to aloe, with strong habits and fast growth, and can add sufficient base fertilizer at the bottom of the pot. The latter belongs to the genus Anthurium, which grows slowly and does not need basal fertilizer.
③ According to different cultivation areas: the climate in the north is dry, which has certain requirements for the moisture retention ability of the soil; In South China, the rainfall is abundant and the air humidity is high, so the requirement of soil drainage and ventilation is higher.
④ According to the different growth stages: the root system is not developed in the seedling stage, the content of organic matter is slightly less, the soil is mainly composed of light materials combined with some fine sand, and then slowly increase the content of organic matter.
In fact, the preparation of soil is not a few simple principles can be said clearly. The following formulas are available for reference:
1) 8 parts of Phytolith + 2 parts of Xiantu + a little shell powder (suitable for cultivation of Shihua).
2) 10 parts of coarse sand + 2 parts of sawdust + 1 part of base fertilizer + 1 part of garden soil (suitable for planting).
3) 1 part of rotten leaf soil + 1 part of peat + 2 parts of coarse sand + 1 part of light material + a little base fertilizer (suitable for cultivation of epiphytes).
4) Tangshiji 3, Xiantu 2, light material 1, peat 1 (suitable for 12 roll hard leaf varieties).
5) 2 parts of garden soil + 1 part of rotten leaf soil + 4 parts of coarse sand + 1 part of light material + half part of rice husk ash (suitable for cultivation of common terrestrial species).
For Sedum soil, the proportion of peat soil or peat soil can be slightly larger, with humic soil, river sand, perlite, vermiculite and so on. In order to facilitate rooting and healthy growth, appropriate amount of rice husk charcoal, bone powder, sterilizer and so on are added to the soil; Watering should be decided according to the weather and plant growth, see dry see wet. Focus on those who grow well to manage. Most of those who don’t grow well are in dormancy. Of course, less management is better.
Soil preparation: after honeycomb briquette cinder screening + garden soil + fairy soil + sand + bone powder + shell powder + eggshell + ceramsite + blue stone + activated carbon, the micro dust is removed for planting. Full light curing, watering see dry see wet. Add rotten chicken manure to the bottom of the pot. The basin should be small and the soil should be loose. After the soil is dry, pour it again for a few days and dry it more. In midsummer, it is less watered, and Crassulaceae is more fleshy[ Source: www.jingyanshu. Com] Jinhu this kind of strong thorn ball, ordinary flower mud + briquette ash + bone powder can, watering well, once a month.
Ball: ordinary flower mud + coal briquette ash (granular after screening) + vermiculite + appropriate amount of bone powder
Succulent species with thick fleshy roots (such as Yufan): orchid stone + Xiantu + proper amount of bone meal
Other meat: common flower mud + rotten leaf soil + snake wood + vermiculite + appropriate amount of bone powder
Put the mixed plant material into a stainless steel container, pour in rainwater to make the soil wet, then seal the container and heat it on the fire for a period of time to ensure the killing of insects, larvae and eggs. However, some soil microorganisms with easy growth will survive, especially those that rely on spores.[selection of pots] the potted pot has good water absorption, and the problem of too much watering is not big, which can alleviate the negative effect caused by too much watering, but the potted pot is heavy after water absorption, and the flower frame is required to be firm. The permeability of Zisha basin is between tile basin and porcelain basin. Generally, Zisha basin is used to raise Xianrou. Purple sand basin needs to pay special attention to the thickness of the basin wall. The thinner the purple sand basin is, the stronger the air permeability is. The air permeability of the old thick basin wall is similar to that of the porcelain basin.
Generally speaking, the root system of Xianrou plants is not very developed. Many Xianrou plants only have fibrous roots. Planting a variety with shallow root system in a deep basin will only be detrimental to its growth, because the basin soil that can not reach the lower root system will retain water for a long time and make the basin soil sticky. Too much water in the soil can not volatilize and transpiration for a while, and it is easy to cause decay. Therefore, in line with the principle of “rather small than big, rather shallow than deep”, it is best to use half high proportion or flat basin. Only those Xianrou varieties with tubers or taproots need deep basin soil, which will grow well in standard basin or deep basin. For large and medium-sized ball selection pots, the ball diameter is basically the same as the pot diameter, or the pot diameter is slightly larger than the ball diameter by one or two centimeters, and the small ball should be planted with multiple plants. The soil depth of cultivation is at most twice the diameter of the ball, that is to say, the diameter of the ball is 5cm, and the soil depth is 10cm. For the big ball, it can be shallower. The bigger the ball, the less water and nutrients it consumes. Too much basin soil is not only useless, but also easy to rot. If the flowerpot is too deep, it is necessary to add more non soil fillings at the bottom as drainage layer. The size of water particles can be arranged in several layers, and the largest one can be placed at the bottom. After the drainage material is placed, first put coarse-grained ingredients, then put fine-grained ingredients. After putting the plant, add soil while lifting the plant slightly to make the root stretch. Don’t add too much soil at one time. Tamp the soil evenly along the edge of the basin. Finally, make the basin smooth by putting the basin light pier several times.

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